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The music of the Pilgrims :a description 

3 1924 022 271 286 

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WAUD0 g^pfyVRAX^: 



A Description of the Psalm-book 
brought to Plymouth in 1620 







This study of a point in the 
musical history of America that 
has been rather strangely over- 
looked is an expansion of a paper 
prepared for the International 
Council held in Boston on June 
29-July 6, 1920, and also given, 
in a revised form, before the 
Connecticut Historical Society on 
October 5, 1920. 

Thanks are due Mr. JohnAlbree, 
of Boston, for kind permission to 
make reproductions from his copy 
of Ainsworth's Psalter, and to him 
and Rev. Dr. Louis F. Benson, 
of Philadelphia, for valuable as- 
sistance in other ways. 



Engliffied both in Prole 
and Metre. 

With AmMtiim,9ftaiHg tfawor&i 

tndfcnttnces, hj eonfiraitt' 

with other fcriftxrtt. 


SefiflUdwlththe Spirit.- ff taking tayMe 


titMAl Sonet -pnging & mking 

mtUdit in jour h&t 

to the Lord. 

Imprinted at Amfterdani 
By Giles Thorp. 

Title-page of the Pilgrim Psalter, First Edition (reduced) 


THE many Tercentenary Celebrations during 1920 
of the coming of the Pilgrims to Plymouth in 
1620 have called fresh attention to that historic 
migration. In such commemorations the accent 
naturally falls upon those religious and political ideas in 
the minds of the pioneers which they proceeded to 
put into practice in the new settlement. Naturally, 
also, the strength and nobility of their personal charac- 
ter are exalted, for the leaders and most of their asso- 
ciates were surely notable figures, eminently fit to be 
founders of a new commonwealth. 

Unfortunately, the disasters that befell the infant 
colony were quick and sharp, so that presently 
Plymouth was overshadowed by the larger and more 
fortunate Puritan plantations to the north, represent- 
ing a somewhat different set of impulses, though of a 
related class. The settlers about what is now Boston 
were so much more numerous than those whom plague 
and famine spared at Plymouth, and the development 
of the Puritan colony of Massachusetts Bay was so 
much more positive and influential, that it is not 
altogether strange that popular thought to-day tends 
to confound the two undertakings and unconsciously 
to extend to Plymouth whatever facts or traditions 
belong to Boston and its neighborhood. Thus in 
trying to draw a picture of the actual life in Plymouth 
it is not uncommon to find details in the later life of 
the Puritans assumed to be true also of the ways of 
the Pilgrims. To offset this prevalent habit of thought 
it is useful to magnify whatever we can recover of the 
distinctive peculiarities of the Plymouth settlement. 


It is surprising that there is so little intelligent 
reference to the musical side of Plymouth life. It is 
true that we do not know how many of the early 
settlers there were musically gifted, and we have no 
record of how the actual practice of singing was kept 
up in the first critical years. But we do know that 
song in worship was one of their cherished and charac- 
teristic customs. And we do know just what music 
they brought with them. We cannot be wrong, also, 
in drawing inferences from that passage in Edward 
Winslow's Hypocrisie Unmasked (1646) in which he 
describes with no little pathos how on July 20/30, 
1620, the large Leyden congregation bade farewell 
to those of their number who were setting out, by 
way of England, for the untried shores of America: 

They that stayed at Leyden feasted us that were 
to go at our pastor's house, [it] being large; where 
we refreshed ourselves, after tears, with singing of 
Psalms, making joyful melody in our hearts as well 
as with the voice, there being many of our congrega- 
tion very expert in music; and indeed it was the 
sweetest melody that ever mine ears heard. 

It is to be remembered that throughout the 16th 
and 17th centuries English Protestants based their 
congregational singing upon metrical versions of the 
Psalms. All early service-books of this kind were 
'Psalm-Books'. These were not supplemented or dis- 
placed by 'Hymn-Books' until the 18th century. The 
first complete metrical Psalter in English was that 
commonly known as 'Sternhold and Hopkins' (so 
called because begun before 1550 by Thomas Sternhold 
and finally edited by a committee of which John Hop- 
kins was chairman). This was first published in 1562. 


In 1564 it was followed by a Scottish variant, based 
in general upon the same material, but with extensive 
differences. These two books dominated the British 
field for a century or more. In Scotland the historic 
'Scottish Psalter' did not come in till 1650, and in 
England 'Tate and Brady' or 'The New Version' did 
not begin to bid for approbation before 1696. Mean- 
while, as successive colonies were planted in the New 
World they all brought over the English Sternhold 
and Hopkins except the colony that came to Plymouth. 

The Psalter brought to Plymouth was one specially 
prepared for the fugitive congregations of 'Separatists' 
in Holland by Henry Ainsworth and published in 
Amsterdam in 161 2. This book was also adopted at 
Salem and used there for about a generation. At 
Plymouth it was maintained much longer, certainly 
until after the Pilgrim settlement was merged with 
Massachusetts Bay in 169a. It was then replaced by 
what we now know as 'The Bay Psalm-Book', which 
was a new American book, published at Cambridge 
in 1640, much revised about 1650 and often reprinted 
later. This 'New England Version' long remained the 
characteristic American Psalter, and as such has 
received a large amount of attention — not always 
with much discrimination. Yet Ainsworth's Psalter 
was in practical use at Plymouth many years earlier, 
and has much more intrinsic importance than the Bay 
Psalm-Book ever had. It is remarkable, therefore, 
that Ainsworth has had so little consideration. 

A few words should be said about the compiler or 
author. Henry Ainsworth stands forth among those 
who earliest underwent religious exile from England 


in Holland as (to quote Dr. Dexter's estimate) 'their 
finest character, who left the richest deposit in litera- 
ture, and who for his humility and sweetness deserves 
worthiest remembrance.' He was born near Norwich 
about 1570, studied four years at Cambridge, probably 
in London became active in the 'Separatist' sect, 
suffered hardship for his opinions, and in 1593 fled for 
liberty to Amsterdam. For a time he seems to have 
been in much poverty and is said to have worked in 
a Dutch book-shop as a Common porter. In process 
of time, however, he naturally became a leader, and, 
especially after 1610, was recognized as the honored 
'teacher' of the principal congregation in Amsterdam, 
the one with which those who later became the Pilgrims 
had fairly amicable relations before they settled in 
Leyden in 1609. Ainsworth was a vigorous contro- 
versialist as well as an able Biblical scholar. He is 
now most remembered because of his Hebrew learning. 
His various commentaries on the Old Testament were 
collected in 1627 and have often been republished. 
He died in 1623, somewhat over fifty years old. 

Ainsworth's Psalter is an octavo volume of iv, 342 
pages, set up and printed with notable care. Its signi- 
ficance as the first real competitor of Sternhold and 
Hopkins is attested by the fact that later editions came 
out in 1617, 1626, 1639, 1644 and 1690. Of the first 
edition of 161 2 I have heard of less than ten copies in 
America — in the Boston Public Library, Boston Uni- 
versity, the Congregational Library of' Boston, the 
American Antiquarian Society in Worcester, Yale Uni- 
versity, the Hartford Theological Seminary in Hart- 
ford, and the rest in private hands. It is likely that 
there are one or two more. Whether any of these cop- 


ies was actually used at Plymouth I do not know. 
The main circulation of the book was in Holland and 

This book has interest in four distinct directions, 
each of which might claim extended exposition. In 
the first place, it presents a complete new translation 
in prose, which is important because made by a com- 
petent scholar at almost exactly the same time with 
the 'King James' or 'Authorized* Version of 1611. 
In the second place, the rendering of each Psalm is 
accompanied by many pithy notes or comments on 
the text, illustrating the author's commonsense as a 
Biblical critic. In the third place, side by side with 
the prose renderings are metrical arrangements of 
them, adapting the entire translation for use in common 
song. In the fourth place, there is a series of nearly 
forty tunes, quaintly set forth in melody only, after 
the fashion of the time. 

It is upon the last of these features that I would here 
fix attention, with whatever may be necessary of the 
third. The book has by no means been forgotten in 
its relation to Biblical scholarship, but its peculiar 
significance as a song-manual should not be overlooked. 

In passing, however, a word should be said about 
the literary quality of the book. The style is concise 
and nervous, with not a few quaintnesses and some 
angularities, but on the whole fairly well illustrating 
that virile period when modern English was being 
forged by such masters as Bacon and Shakespeare into 
a mighty weapon of expressional force and brilliance. 
As a specimen of the prose renderings we may quote that 
of the 23rd Psalm: — 


Jehovah feedeth me; I shall not lack. In folds of budding grass 
He make th me lie down; He easily Ieadeth me by the waters of rests. 
He returneth my soul; He Ieadeth me in the beaten paths of justice 
for His name sake. Yea, though I should walk in the vally of the 
shade of death, I wilnot fear evil; for Thou wilt be with me; Thy rod 
and Thy staff, they shall comfort me. Thou furnishest before me a 
table in presence of my distressers; Thou makest fat my head 
with oil; my cup is abundant. Doubtless good and mercy shal 
folow me al the dayes of my life, and I shal converse in the howse of 
Jehovah to length of dayes. 

To this we may add a single stanza of the verse to 
show how the prose is turned into meter: — 

Jehovah feedeth me, I shal not lack; 

In grassy folds He down dooth make me lye; 

He gently leads me quiet waters by. 
He dooth return my soul; for His name sake 

In paths of justice leads me quietly. 

Quoting this stanza reminds us that the music cannot 
be considered apart from the verse. The two are vitally 
interdependent. In all early Protestant song, whether 
in England or France or Germany, we observe certain 
prevalent types of verse being united with the available 
types of melody that went with them. In this particular 
Psalter there was probably little or nothing in either 
verse or music that was absolutely novel, though in 
both particulars it differs notably from English usage 
as then established. The book was made in Holland for 
an exotic group of English folk temporarily sojourning 
there. From England they had of course brought the 
song-usages that had been gradually forming since the 
beginning of Queen Elizabeth's reign. But in Holland 
they were in close contact with the mingled French and 
Dutch usages of the Reformed Churches in the Low 
Countries. In Ainsworth, then, we are not surprised 
to find a unique blend of styles, including a large pro- 
portion of French forms. It was this unique blend 


that was conveyed across the Atlantic in 1620. The 
transplanted vine of song, as we shall see, had not the 
strength to strike root permanently. Other plantings 
throve more readily. So it came about that what the 
first-comers brought and for a time watched over with 
devoted reverence had fallen into more or less oblivion 
by the time their grandchildren came upon the stage. 

The versification in Ainsworth is uniformly iambic, 
as in all the early English metrical Psalters, though 
with some licences that slightly relieve the monotony. 
As contrasted with our modern hymnody, we are at 
once struck by the entire absence of energetic trochaic 
measures. In 161 2 these were quite unknown or at 
least unused in practical psalmody. They did not 
come in until more than a century later, when in 1739 
Charles Wesley took up the lyre. Slightly associated 
with this is the further fact that only very rarely do 
the lines have a 'feminine' ending (only found in Pss. 
45, 50 and 136). Both of these points directly affected 
the form of the music. 

In reading the stanzas aloud, by the way, we need 
to remember that in 161 2 English pronunciation was 
probably no more absolutely fixed than was English 
spelling. Some words of French origin may have 
retained at least a Gallic accent, if not a Gallic vocali- 
zation. Many longer words were often split up into 
all the syllables possible — as 'salvati-on* and even 
'cogitati-on famil-i-ar' (Ps. 139). 'Jehovah' was cer- 
tainly called 'Jehovay', 'Jah' 'Jay' and 'Selah' *Selay\ 

There i,s a (to us) surprising preference for long 
stanzas, just as in many of the early German hymns. 
Hardly more than one Psalm in ten is cast in the 


brief four-line pattern that is now often supposed to be 
typical of the 'old' psalmody. Here, again, we must 
remind ourselves that the so-called 'short' stanza and 
tune did not become dominant in English u^age at 
first. In Ainsworth fully half of the Pssalms are in 
eight-line stanzas, while thirty-four of the remainder 
have six lines and eleven have five lines. Three actually 
have twelve lines. All this means that the prevailing 
types of melody were extended rather than condensed. 
During the 17th century 'short' tunes became the rule, 
doubtless because they cost less effort of memory and 
of voice, and their supremacy then lasted until far 
into the 19th. Even yet there are those who regard 
'Dundee' (which is of the same period as Ainsworth) 
or 'St. Ann's' (which is a century later) as indicating 
the initial type of English tune. It is true that the 
prejudice in favor of the syllable-formula 8-6-8-6 (the 
'ballad meter' or 'common meter') was somewhat 
firmly seated before 1600, and that during the 17th 
century practically all tunes came to be adjusted to 
this meter or one of i ts near relatives. Here in America, 
when in 1698 the Bay Psalm-Book first came to include 
music, practically all the tunes were of this one class. 
But in Ainsworth we are in the presence of a very 
different taste. It is curious that only within a com- 
paratively recent period have English and American 
churches begun to take up again the elaborated verse- 
forms and the extended melodies that were common in 
the thought of the Pilgrims. 

In Ainsworth, as in all other early Psalters until 
Tate and Brady, there is little care for beauty of verbal 
effect. Many passages seem rough and awkward to 
our ears, and not a few of the rhymes are harsh. The 


dne aim was to get the whole substance of the prose 
text into meter without abridgment and with all possible 

Many more comments might be made about the 
features of the verse. But we must hasten on to the 
musical features. 

Regarding the sources of the music Ainsworth has 
this to offer: — 

Tunes for the Psalms I find none set of God; so 
that each people is to use the most grave, decent and 
comfortable manner of singing that they know. . 
The singing-notes, therefore, I have most taken from 
our former Englished Psalms, when they will fit the 
measure of the verse. And for the other long verses 
I have also taken (for the most part) the gravest and 
easiest tunes of the French and Dutch Psalmes. 

After the custom of the time, only the melodies 
are given, set in the old 'square' notes. The notes 
used are regularly in but three values, in the body of 
the tunes only semibreves and minims ( o and i ), 
but with a 'long' ( J ) always at the end. The C-clef 
is the only one used, placed on the staff according to 
the pitch and range of the melody — usually on the 
fourth line or third line, but occasionally on the second 
(Pss. 13 and 32) or even the first (Ps. 35=77). A flat 
is often added in the signature, and flats are some- 
what introduced as accidentals. Sharps, however, are 
never used (perhaps because the font at hand did not 
contain them), though in numerous cases they were 
undoubtedly supplied mentally — as parallel versions 
in other books indicate. The music- type that Ainsworth 
found available was not as clear or positive as might 
be desired, so that some of the melodies, especially 


in their fitting to the words below them, are hard to 
read rapidly. But the proof-reading seems remarkably 
careful. Regarding this typography we naturally 
recall Longfellow's graceful reference in 'The Court- 
ship of Miles Standish', at the point where John Alden, 
on the way with the Captain's message, finds Priscilla 
singing — 

Open wide on her lap lay the well-worn psalm-book of Ainsworth, 
Printed in Amsterdam, the words and the music together, 
Rough-hewn, angular notes, like stones in the wall of a churchyard, 
Darkened and overhung by the running vine of the verses. 

In his description of Priscilla singing the iooth Psalm 
Longfellow seems to show a fine sense of the look of 
the book as it was. Somewhere he might have woven 
into his picture the hint that Priscilla, with her pre- 
sumably French blood, may be supposed to have had 
a peculiar sympathy with the many French melodies 
in Ainsworth. 

Apparently there are forty-eight tunes, scattered 
about without much plan. Where no tune is given, 
there is a cross-reference, like 'Sing this as the 18. 
Psalm'. But the forty-eight prove to include nine 
duplicates, so that the actual number is thirty-nine. 

These represent in all fifteen different types of 
stanza or 'meters', as follows: — 

(4 lines) S. M. (6686) Ps. 21. 

C. M. (8686) Pss. 15, 54. 

L. M. (8888) Pss. 5, 33 ( = 81, 104), 66, 100. 

10s. Pss. 3 (=86), 25,37, 97. 

(5 lines) 10s. Pss. 8, 35 (=77). 

(6 lines) L. M. (8888,88) Ps. 34. 

L. P. M. (888,888) Ps. 60. 

• 10s. Pss. 18 (=69), 45, 53, in. 

1 os, us. Ps. 50. 

(7 lines) 6s, 4. (6666,4,66) Ps. 108. 


(8 lines) C. M. D. Pss. i (=68), 7 (=74), 22, 24, 

27 ( = 106), 39, 42, 44, 59, 89. 
L. M. D. Pss. 32, 51, 75. 

10s, D. Pss. 55, 78, 119. 

(9 lines) 6s. Ps. 13. 

(12 lines) L. P. M. D. Ps. 84 (=136, with every third 

line condensed). 

I have not had the means of absolutely checking 
up these tunes with all the other books of the period. 
At least half of them, as is implied in Ainsworth's 
Preface, can be found in one or both of the two Stern- 
hold and Hopkins versions. It is safe to assume that 
much more than a majority of all are of French origin, 
since many melodies already in English use were taken 
from the Genevan Psalters. This is certainly true 
of the two that linger in modern hymnals — 'Old iooth' 
and 'Old 124th' (or 'Toulon'), the latter of which now 
known only with one of its five lines omitted [ this 
tune here appears as Ps. 8 ]. Those that seem least 
likely to be English in either origin or use are Pss. 3, 
13J1 8, 25, 33, 35, 37, 39, 45, 53, 55, 60, 66, 78, 84, 97, 1 1 1 
and 119. Almost every one of these is extended, and 
most of them are fitted to ten-syllable lines. Ainsworth's 
notably abundant use of these long pentameter forms 
is plainly due to his desire to avail himself of the 
many fine French melodies at hand. The French 
Psalters were in this regard strikingly different from 
the English. 

The mode of the melodies is minor in three out of 
every four cases. Those that are to be counted as 
major include Pss. 5, 8, 24, 37, 39, 44, 84 (=136), 97, 
ico, 108 and 119. A few were probably conceived in a 
Gregorian scale not quite like our modern minor. The 
difficulty is that in all the minors, as well as in one or 


two of those assumed to be major, and repeatedly 
where modulation seems to take place, we cannot tell 
with absolute certainty how far the seventh degree was 
sharped in singing or just how the sixth degree was 
treated in consequence. It is likely that, unless col- 
lateral evidence of some sort is forthcoming, the precise 
interpretation of some melodies will vary with different 
observers, and there are even cases where two diverse 
interpretations seem almost equally attractive. 

It would be very wrong to imagine that these tunes 
conform to the rigid and artificial rhythmic regularity 
that became the fashion in all Protestant psalmody 
during the 17th century — a stiff heaviness that we 
are now too apt to think was the original characteristic 
of this whole type of song. In these, as in other early 
tunes generally, there almost certainly ran originally 
a sustained vivacity, variety and vigor akin to our 
modern notion of a glee or part-song. In Ainsworth 
there is not a single tune in even or uniform notes. 
Three-quarters of the 252 lines begin with a long 
note, sometimes three or five. One-quarter begin 
with a short note, sometimes more than one. Every 
real line ends with a long note, often three. But within 
the lines the schemes of longs and shorts vary consid- 
erably — not capriciously, but with evident attention 
to the interest there is in changing patterns. All told, 
there are nearly forty-five distinct line-rhythms, a few 
of them quite unknown in present tune-writing. Com- 
parison with other books shows that the dispositions 
of accent and quantity were intentional and established. 
As a whole, this music represents the folk-song style, 
with its symmetrical and echoing lines, each with a 


definite unity and all fused into a total enveloping 
unity. But it is folk-song that has retained great 
freedom of inner structure. It may be that these 
thirty-nine melodies illustrate more than one strain of 
folk-song tradition. 

For example, there are eight different rhythms for 
six-syllable lines, among them the curious^'shap' form 
found in Ps. 24, lines b, d, f, h, and in 54, line d. For 
eight-syllable lines there are no less than twenty 
rhythms, including peculiar forms like those in (soad, or 
in 54a, or in 75W, the first two of which also include 
a 'snap' effect. Ten-syllable lines are treated in fif- 
teen rhythms, including two with a 'snap' in 8c and 
in i8£. What is here called a 'snap' is an accented 
short note followed by a long one, producing a syncopa- 
tion that is often effective, though a trifle disconcerting 
to the unwary singer to-day. This whole subject merits 
much greater analysis than can here be undertaken. 
If followed out in detail, it probably strengthens the 
view that Ainsworth is much affected by the French 
traditions of song that were not altogether acceptable 
to English editors, though many of them were in- 
corporated into the Scottish editions of Sternhold and 

These melodies were undoubtedly meant to be sung 
in unison, led by the men's voices, since the melody is 
set for the 'tenor'. Whatever may have been true of 
the two or three hundred members of the original 
congregation in Leyden, as evidenced by Winslow's 
remark previously quoted, it is not likely that the 
hundred Pilgrims who came to Plymouth did much 
singing in parts. In England, to be sure, there had 
been harmonized versions of Psalter music published 
as early as 1563 (Day), with others in 1579 (Damon), 
1592 (Este) and 1599 (Allison). In Scotland they did 


not come in till 1635. It is not clear, however, that 
any of these much affected the practice of congregations 
generally. If the melody was thus supported, it would 
be by a 'bass' below, an 'alto' (or 'high' part) above, 
and perhaps a 'treble' (or 'third' part) above that. 
The transfer of leadership to the upper women's voices 
did not become established till long after 1612. We 
may reasonably conjecture that whatever part-singing 
was attempted was more contrapuntal in impulse than 
harmonic, with more*attention, that is, to the combined 
'run' of the voices among themselves than for the 
complete chord-sequences as such, though at this 
period, especially with melodies of this folk-song class, 
the latter were coming into decided prominence. 

In regarding all melodies of these old days we must 
not forget that the Pilgrims moved in a song-atmosphere 
quite different from that which is common to-day. 
Melodies were mostly caught by ear and caught from 
an actual singing-voice, not from an organ, harpsichord 
or similar instrument. They were thought as pure 
melodies, not as contours of a flowing stream of key- 
board harmony. And they were amalgamated with 
actual words, text and tune standing as one indissoluble 
unity. Doubtless, too, to these old singers, because 
they were singers, every melodic interval, every scale- 
tone as such and every turn in the rhythmic accent 
and movement had point and meaning to a degree of 
intensity that is rare in popular feeling to-day. We 
can recover the artistic color of these old songs only 
through the help of some specially sympathetic inter- 
pretation by a trained vocal interpreter, or, failing that, 
through some dextrous addition of the chord-effects 
that we now expect as a matter of course. In all 


attempts at reproduction careful attention is due to 
the shaping and animating force of the varying line- 
rhythms, and these deserve in many cases to be studied 
with reference to their derivation from the vigorous 
movements of the sprightly folk-dance. It may be 
guessed that the tempo originally was not slow or heavy 
but lively and sparkling, and that the accents were 
full and hearty. 

Thus regarded and handled, these old tunes prove 
anything but monotonous or dolorous, or even very 
strange to our taste. Many of them turn out to be 
true works of simple art, not only admirably adapted 
to their purpose, but appealing to any healthy appre- 
ciation. Yet, at the best, we cannot be sure that we 
can fully enter into their spirit. We no longer have 
quite the same religious absorption in the belief that 
with the Psalms for text we are singing what the very 
hand of God wrote for the perpetual use of His people. 
And, on the musical side, we no longer have the sub- 
conscious sense of those medieval or ecclesiastical 
modes that were still vital and potent in the minds of 
singers in the Elizabethan era, with the shadowy 
atmosphere of tone-relations that hung about them like 
a delicate aura. 

As has been said, it is unlikely that any of the Ains- 
worth tunes were new or even freshly adapted. Many 
of them can be traced back into the 16th century in 
various English and French Psalters. Their primary 
significance lies not in their being in any way extraordi- 
nary, but in the fact that this particular sheaf of sacred 
songs was in the hands and hearts of the little band 
of New England pioneers. If the venture at Plymouth 


had been practically more successful, and if Plymouth 
had become the civil and religious center of New 
England, the story of our early psalmody might have 
been quite different from what it was, just as its politi- 
cal and social development might also have been 
different. For this reason alone it is worth while 
to have these melodies made accessible by reprinting 
them in full. 

But there is another reason. In music-history it 
is customary to emphasize the time about 1600 as 
that in which modern conceptions of structure and 
effect began to replace those of the medieval period. 
In particular, this was the time when the dramatic 
recitative and arioso began to be recognized, leading 
in just the years when "Ainsworth was evolving his 
Psalter to the launching of the complex entertainment 
that we call the 'opera' (Monteverdi's 'Orfeo' was pro- 
duced in 1603 and his 'Arianna' in 1608, and he went 
to Venice in 1613). One of the prime factors in the 
momentous shift that was taking place in all artistic 
music was the spontaneous vitality that was being 
discovered in the popular songs of several countries. 
It was from this general treasury of popular songs that 
■the new Protestant movement adopted or adapted 
its tunes for religious uses. This was alike true in 
Germany, in Switzerland and France, down the Rhine 
Valley and in the Low Countries, and across the Channel 
in England. The first stage of this special develop- 
ment extended toward the middle or even the end of 
the 17th century. It then passed over into a second 
stage, especially in Germany, when the varied original 
materials were worked over into the more sophisticated 
type of the traditional 'chorale' and then became the 


basis for a fresh contrapuntal and instrumental develop- 
ment, culminating in the first half of the 18th century 
in the sublime work of the great Bach. The manifold 
interest and importance of this second stage tends to 
hide from view the charm of the initial stage that 
preceded it. Anything, therefore, which brings back 
to memory the quality of the original songs of Protes- 
tantism has value. No one would exalt the music of 
the Ainsworth Psalter as in the least conspicuous or 
important in this total historic movement. But it is 
an interesting bit of concrete evidence. This Psalter 
is one of a considerable number before 1650 that pre- 
serve the naive freshness of song that was character- 
istic of Protestantism at its youthful stage. 

In view of what this Ainsworth music was one 
wonders that instead of exerting some perceptible in- 
fluence in its American habitat it practically vanished 
from popular memory. By about 1700 it appears that 
but one of its tunes remained in common use — 'Old 
100th' — and this only because established in usage 
through other books. There were some later efforts 
at intervals to recover a few more, but they accom- 
plished nothing significant. 

One reason was that Ainsworth was the book of 
Plymouth rather than of Boston. Its prestige was 
quite overshadowed by that of the Puritan 'Bay 
Psalm-Book' and the tunes from the English Sternhold 
and Hopkins that were associated with the latter. 
Just as in Great Britain the Scottish Sternhold and 
Hopkins, which was musically superior to the English 
version, was driven into the background by the latter's 
popularity, so in New England the vogue of the 'Bay 
Psalm-Book' was fatal to all rivals. 


Another reason, more essential and practically potent, 
was the fact that Ainsworth represented a freer use of 
verse-forms than either Sternhold and Hopkins or the 
'Bay Psalm-Book.' A large section of its tunes, there- 
fore, did not fit the meters of the latter books. The 
17th century, we recall, was the time when 'Common 
Meter' became regnant — in some quarters exclusive. 
The 'Bay Psalm-Book' used only six meters, and cm. 
was put forward in four out of every five cases. At 
least fifteen of the Ainsworth tunes were thereby ruled 
out altogether, among them some of the best. 

A third reason was the steadily declining interest 
among English-speaking Protestants in the technique 
of congregational song. This made it hard on either 
side of the water to maintain tunes of the length and 
variety of those in Ainsworth. What was the condi- 
tion in England is well set forth in chap. iii. of Light- 
wood's Hymn-Tunes and their Story (1905), and, 
remembering how scattered and primitive were the 
focal points of culture in the American colonies till 
the 1 8th century, we may be sure that here conditions 
were infinitely less favorable. In 1692 the Plymouth 
Church, formally recognized the 'difficulties' of many of 
the Ainsworth tunes and granted permission for the 
substitution of easier ones from the New England 

There is perhaps another factor that merits a further 
word, even though it be hard to define without going 
into a special dissertation. When the Pilgrims came to 
Plymouth they were plainly still in that early ardor 
for Protestant ideas and practices that had marked all 
similar bodies throughout the 16th century. Public 


worship as an institution was not only reverenced, 
but intensely loved, since it was the visible mani- 
festation of the spiritual fraternity of believers in the 
presence and thought of God. It was known to be a 
positive means of grace largely because in it and 
through it the democratic congregation ality of the 
brotherhood came to definite expression. Its heart 
and core was that body of common prayer and praise 
which was felt to be in a true sense sacramental, and 
to which what we call 'preaching' was meant to con- 
tribute. Hence resulted the extraordinary respect 
that was paid to everything connected with the con- 
gregational exercises of prayer and praise, as well as 
their great extension in the regular services. Although 
sermons were long, the prayers and the psalms were 
at least as long, probably often longer. Every service 
included two extended prayers, one by the 'pastor' 
and the other by the 'teacher', and two liberal selections 
from the Psalter, which was sung through in order from 
first to last in the course of some period like a year. 
As a little token of how the psalmody was regarded, it 
is said that for a long time if during the week one were 
passing a house where some one within was humming 
a snatch of a psalm-tune, the chance hearer took off 
his hat as a devout Italian uncovers when a procession 
passes bearing a bit of the consecrated Host. 

But in America, as in England, there began in the 
17th century that impressive and lamentable change in 
liturgical emphasis through which ministeriality was 
exalted over congregationality, bringing with it in 
public worship the gradual dominance over everything 
of the sermon, often as a display of intellectual prowess. 


In consequence, the congregation came to regard its 
function as less that of activity, and sank into the atti- 
tude of the passive recipient, if not that of the captious 
critic. We to-day suffer grievously from the fruits of 
this insidious process of change. But the immediate 
musical result was the debilitation and flattening out 
of everything connected with congregational song. 
Such fresh and hearty tunes as Bradford and Winslow 
knew were bound to disappear. They cost too much in 
the way of concentration of effort and warmth of inner 
impulse. They were the voice of an age and a spirit 
that were beginning to pass away. In the 1 8th century, 
and at intervals later, there have been instinctive 
movements to recover the original liturgical fervor of 
youthful Protestantism. But none of these have lasted 
long or proved conspicuously effective, since none of 
them has quite gone to the root of the matter. That 
root, it is obvious, lies imbedded in many complex 
conditions and conceptions that do not belong at all 
in the realm of music, though they sometimes display 
their consequences within that realm. 

However these things may be, we to-day may well 
stand in reverent interest before whatever serves to 
bring before us the spirit of those early days when for 
an entire congregation to sing together with full heart 
and voice was counted one of the finest and most 
precious of privileges. 


It may be well to add a few hints as to the varied literature bearing upon the 
subject of the foregoing discussion. 

Regarding the Pilgrims in particular and the total Puritan movement, with 
which they were more or less involved, a multitude of books have been pub- 
lished. None of these, however, so far as I am aware, treats in detail of the 
music here under consideration. Dexter's The England and Holland of the 
Pilgrims, 1905, contains many items about Ainsworth and his relation to the 
churches in Holland. Miss Earle's The Sabbath in New England, 1891, has 
an extended chapter upon Ainsworth's Psalter, but this is not entirely satis- 
factory or trustworthy, especially as regards the verse and the music. On 
the other hand, in Publications of the Colonial Society of Mass., i. 228-38, is 
an excellent and accurate paper by S. Lothrop Thorndike on 'The Psalmodies 
of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay' which does real justice to Ainsworth's 
use of French melodies. 

Regarding the intricate development of the early English Psalters the best 
information is given in Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology, 1892 (revised, 1907), 
under 'Psalters, English', 'Psalters, French', 'Old Version', 'Scottish Hymnody', 
etc. Numerous lesser works on hymnody supply some points, though often 
without precision. 

Regarding the early Psalm-tunes, reference may be had to popular books 
like Lightwood's Hymn-Tunes and their Story, 1905, Curwen's excellent 
Studies in Worship-Music, 1st Series, 1880 (3rd ed., 1901) and Love's Scottish 
Church Music, 1891. Of the greatest importance are the elaborate disserta- 
tions in Livingston's The Scottish Metrical Psalter of 1635, 1864. The more 
comprehensive general treatises, like Douen's Clement Marot et le Psautier 
Huguenot, 1878-79, will mostly be found listed in Julian, though their number 
is still growing. Some points, also, can be traced in German authorities, such 
as Kiimmerle's Encyclop'adie der evangelischen Kirchenmusik, 1888-95, though 
these seldom do full justice to matters outside the German field. 

Regarding the course of Psalmody in America there are such handbooks 
as Hood's History of Music in New England, 1846, Ritter's unsympathetic 
Music in America, 1883 (revised, 1890), Elson's History of American Music, 
1904 (revised, 1915), and articles on 'Bay Psalm-Book' and 'Tune-Books' in 
Grove's Dictionary of Music, Vol. vi (American Supplement), 1920. 

Many statements in the notes appended to the melodies following are based 
upon Livingston or Douen. 


so Pfalm. VIIL 

i . To (he mayfter »/ (** miiftk^ upon 
Gittith; a Pfalm of David. 

IEhovah our wondrous* 
evcelletH thy name in al (he earth: 
which haft given rhy glorious-majef- 
tie, above the heaven s- 

3. Out-of the mouth of babes, & 
fucklings.thou had -founded flrength; 
hccaufe of thy-diftreflers:to makeccafe 
theenemie, & felf- avenger. 

4. When I behold thy heaveos.the 
deed of thy fingers : the moon and 
the ftarrs, which thou haft ftably-con- 

5. What wfory-man that thonre- 
membrefthim : and the fonof Adam, 
that thou-vifiteft him? 

6. For thou haftmade-him-leflera 
litle, than the Gods: and crowned him 
with glory and comeljr-hon our. 

7. Thou gaveft -hini-domimon,oyer 
the works of thy hands:all,th'ou-didft- 
fett under his feet. 

8. Sheep and oxen al of them: and 
alfo , the beafts of the feild. 

«?. The fowl of the heavens, & the 
fifties of the fea : that-which-pafleth- 
through.the pathes of the fcas. 

jo. Ichovahoiir Lord : how won- 
drous-excellent u thy name, 
in al the earth. 

f xb our Lard Jam excellent -great is 
thy namemaU theearth: thouxvhichhafi given 
thy ghr'mu-maitftie above the hernial. 
3. Fro mouth ifbabei,&Jfok{ings,thoiiJi>vmes 

fiutidedft; bettutfi of them that, thee dtftrtfii 

Tomatpthefie t emdfelf-avmotruaf: 
4- When f behold tbyheav'ns, thy fingers deed: 

the mom and narrifrhicb thou haft ftabhfhei. 
j. What is fiayl-man that him thoa remembreili 

and Adams pm^ that him thou vtfieft? ' 
6. For thou a lute lefferhaJf made him, 

than be the Gods: and crnmdhan Vtitbgbm 

and-eke with honourable-dtcencie. 
7 k Ofthykand-'frorks.thoHgavrft him ruling: 

under hitftet, thimfet diJfl every. thing. 

8. Sheep & beeves all: and frild beaftitmh the 

9. Fovilefiheheaifnsjiflnftheftaalfi: (fiwe. 
that ihroughthepath-Wayesof the feasdaothgo, 

to. O Jab our Lord:hm exteHtm-great-fato 
in all the earth hath thy renoumed-vami. 


#. t. Gittith] 0} the Gittith: toljicfi title iSfllfo gtiKll to trie Sr.8r84.Pfalmes. Gathfft 
©clbJueifl^vvihepr^fs,^^a.^^».3tt!lSaIforftenameofacityOft5e^]Jiu')lnn!!l, 1 Sam. 17.4. 
58 titkalfOOftlje irtJitCSJUMSJcalcb Gath-rimmonIof.ti.»^rjerfl>poH Obed-edomtlje 
fan of Ieduthun, a H.ririte anb finger m gfrnrt.ujass tatcbn Gmite. 2. Sam. «. 10, fiobp 
Gittith fjett map bt inrant, fpthcr fuch inltruments as were ufed by the poftenty of Obed-e- 
dom the G 1 1 ti v, oj.tfjat tftrfe idfalmr $ Mx re niabe upon OKflfton of tranfpojriug <6obss arft 
from tfKhotufe of that bbed-tdsm, t&cfti|to>plDl)tvof ((Sun Sun. <j. e. 10. n.u . &c. cj, 
ti;nt tfjrfe #falmejt Uicw to be fung foj pjaifr ot'^ob, at tfje ©mtage, tthcti nrppss tocte 
jneffco. ftnb artojomg to ttaa, thcOiefntrnr.flattthit thewineprefles. 4?jitwupbeuie 
name of fome mufical inlbutncnt ; atiD fo tf)e <t halo? rparfljjljjnp taucth ft. 

fr a. otuLerd]o; 1 ourfufte>Ben:fi^tj^uotCouF&l.a.<i> wonJams-excelleat] 

VI Ml 04 

A page from the Pilgrim Psalter (reduced) 

THE thirty-nine melodies in Ainsworth are given herewith, 
accompanied in each case by some single stanza of the 
words regularly used. For convenience, they are trans- 
scribed in modern notation, using the G-clef instead of the C- 
clef, and representing I by J , « by J and J by © (though prop- 
erly Pt ). The pitch indicated is that of the original, though the 
change of clefs transposes it an octave upward. When a flat 
occurs in the signature, or as an accidental, it is reproduced. In 
cases where contemporaneous books show that sharps were in- 
troduced in singing, they are indicated above the staff. Where a 
sharp maybe conjectured, but is not thus supported by evidence, 
it is put in parenthesis. Some problematical cases are further 
indicated by a query. 

The original music is without bars, except to mark the end 
of the tune. The ends of the lines are more or less consistently 
indicated by 'checks', which are here reproduced by a mark at 
the top of the staff. In the original the tunes have the time- 
signature $, with the exception of five cases (42, 45, 50, 51, m). 
It seems evident that this indicates in general what was sometimes 
called 'alia semibreve' or 'alia cappella' time. But its applica- 
tion in many cases is by no means clear, since the rhythmic 
feet are triple rather than duple. It is important to remember 
that in some books of the periods such feet were made duple 
by dotting the long notes. Whether this alteration was common 
in actual singing is unknown. 

In selecting single stanzas to go with the melodies the aim was 
to take those that are somewhat complete in thought and fairly 
finished in expression. The original spelling is retained, but not 
the punctuation. 

With each tune a few brief notes are subjoined, recalling 

points about its derivation and previous usage or emphasizing 

features in the melody that are worth observing. These latter 

remarks mainly concern the modes used or the line-rhythms 

or the modulations implied or the melodic devices, including 

cadence-formulae. These notes are by no means all that might 

be made, but they will serve to bring out some of the salient 

technical points. 


Psalms i and 68 (also 4, 11, 19,76,98, no, 121, 127, 144). c. m. d. 


J Jj J J J J J J J J J i 


r J r r i r r ^^ 




^■ijjjjj j jj j 


O blessed man, that dooth not in 

The wicked's counsel walk 
Nor stand in synner's way, nor sit 

In seat of scornful folk, 
But setteth in Jehovah's law 

His pleasureful delight, 
And in His law dooth meditate 

By day. and eke by night. 

[Ps. 1 

In Sternhold and Hopkins, both forms, the 'proper' tune for Ps. 119. 
Appeared in the partial London Psalter of 1560 with Whittingham's new 
version of that Psalm. 

Rhythm of line a found elsewhere only in ye. 

Line g is tonally the same as 34/. 

Lines c-d modulate into the dominant minor, and / into the relative major. 


Psalms 3 and 86 (also 6, 55, 119, 120). 10s. 












I layd me down and slept; I waking rose; 

For me Jehovah firmly up did bear. 

For thowsands ten of folk I wil not fear, 
Which me besetting round about inclose. 


The only melody in 10s that has a uniform line-rhythm, which is the 
commonest form for io-sy liable lines. It can be regarded as laid out in either 
2/2 or 3/2 measures. The latter pattern (the first of three beats divided) was 
a favorite with Lowell Mason, though used by him for shorter lines. 

Line a curiously resembles the opening of a tune set to Ps. 74 in the Genevan 
Psalter of 1562, though the latter is in major. But the rest of the two melodies 
are cjuite different. (See Douen, i. 661.) 
Line b modulates into the dominant minor, perhaps throughout. 


Psalm 5. l. 





r r r r r 





r r r r i' r " i 

And all that hope in Thee for stay 
Shal joy, shal showt eternallie; 

And Thou shalt cover them; and they 
That love Thy name, be glad in Thee. 

[ft. si 

In Scottish S&H. (from 1595) set to the versified Ten Commandments. 
It comes from the Genevan Psalter of 1556. 

Therhythm of a is unique in the juxtaposition of duple and triple feet. 
But it is possible that in singing the latter were made duple by dotting the 
minims. This adjustment often occurs in Este's harmonized Psalter of 1592. 

Line c probably modulates into the dominant major. 

The echo between b and d is effective. 


Psalm 7 and 74 (also 10, 14, 16, 83, 90, 1 16, 143). c. M. D. 


t r J J J J J J, M 


F~ p P "F 





■ ■ 



r r r r T r r I 


fi o 

Jehovah, Thou wilt quicken me 

Ev'n for Thyne own name's sake; 
Thou in Thy justice forth my sowl 

Out of distress wilt take. 
And in Thy mercie wilt suppress 

My foes, and al of them 
Destroy that doo afflict my sowl; 

For I Thy servant am. 


In S&H., both forms, the 'proper' tune for Ps. 130. It comes from the 
Genevan Psalter of 1 J42, and is also in the Strassburg Psalter of 1539. 

The peculiar rhythm of e recalls \a. 

Other versions do not agree as to the second and third sharps. In the 1629 
English book both are included and g ends with b-natural. The intended 
harmonic scheme is in doubt, but analogy suggests that the three sharps should 
be kept, but not the natural. The modulations, then, would be the usual 
ones, into the dominant minor and the relative major. 


Psalm 8 (also 17, 23, 35, 77, 85, 92, 124). 10s, 5 lines. 

g— w 





• J O 







Our sowl is as a bird escaped free 

From out of the intangling fowler's snare. 
The snare is broke and we escaped are. 

Our succour in Jehovah's name shal bee 

That of the heav'ns and earth is the maker. 

[Ps. ia 4 1 

In S&H., both forms, the 'proper' tune for Ps. 124. It was taken in 1560 
from the Genevan Psalter of 1559, but first appeared in 1551. It is attributed 
to Louis Bourgeois, but the traditional harmony is Goudimel's. It is now 
commonly reduced to four lines by omitting c. This modified version, often 
with changed rhythm and the second cadence inverted, is usually called 

The rhythm off is unique, though the 'snap' effect is parallelled in 18*. 


Psalm 13 (also 88, 130). 6s, 9 lines. 



d a* - 


J J J 1 J J =j=j= 



j j J J 1 J jj jjj jrr Jj ^ 


I counted am with them 
That doo go down the pit; 

I am as man that hath 
Abilitie no whit. 

Ev'n free among the dead, 
As slayn in grave that lay, 

Whom Thou dost mind no more, 
Because from Thy hand they 
Have quite been cut away. 

[ Ps. 88 ] 

Apparently Dorian, though the practical treatment is not clear. Modula- 
tion into the dominant minor is likely in b and d, and probably into the rela- 
tive major in e-f. . . . . 

The rather unusual pairs of notes in t and f may point to derivation from 
4-note lines, possibly an immature stage of the stanza later called 'Hallelu- 
jah Meter' (6666, 4444). cf. the form of Ps. 108. 


Psalm 15 (also 131). c. m. 







r r rr JJJ "i J ij ^ 



Jehovah, who shal sojourner 
In Thy pavilion bee? 

Who shal a dweller be within 
Thy mount of sanctitie? 

IPs. iJl 

This simple 'short' tune sounds like those later known as 'common' tunes 
(tunes in C. M. adaptable to any Psalm in that meter). But I have not identi- 
fied it as such. . .... , , . 

The rhythms are all different. That of a is unique, while those of * and c 
are elsewhere found only in 54* and 89* respectively. 

Line b seems to modulate into the relative major. 


Psalms 18 and 69 (also 2, 38, 45, 52, 63, 72, 107, 140). ios, 6 lines. 


L E 


J J J J 

" q #. 

g • • 

a> a i 

»rrrj|'rrJ.ij'JJJJ?J?J J ^ 






I love Thee deer, Jehovah my firmness; 
Jehovah is my rotk and my fortress, 
And my deliverer, my God is Hee, 
My rock, in whom I sheltred hope to bee 
My shield and horn of my salvation, 
My fensed hye fortification. [ Ps. 18 j 

This extended and individual tune I have not yet identified in other books. 

It may be conceived without modulation. _ But the unique cadence in c 
is surprising, and that of e is ambiguous. I incline to read f-sharp throughout, 
but with hesitation in c. 

The rhythm of / is unique, and that of b found only in 25a and 55* (both 
tunes of French origin). 

The device of beginning with three reiterated notes, as in a and c , occurs 
also in 25*, 3yd, 42a, S<xd, siac, $$efh, Sod, 78*, 8«A, 100* and na«fa. All 
these, except possibly 42, are probably French. 


Psalm 21 (also 93, 134). s. m. 

NJ J J J J i 




rjj JJ JJ m 


Jehovah, in Thy strength 

Doo high Thyself advance; 
And we wil sing and praise with psalm 

Thy powrful puissance. [Ps. ai ) 

This melody resembles that for Ps. 54, though the latter is in C. M. and is 
tonally identical only in spots. The 'common' tune called 'London' in the 
Scottish S&H. ('Cambridge' in the English) of 1615 and '35 consists of 54a* 
+ 2ir</. This tune, in some one of its varying forms, is at least as old as 
Damon's Psalter of 1 577. It is supposed to be of English origin (see Livingston, 
passim). It is not to be confused with 'London New' or 'Newtoun'. 

The rhythm off, combining duple and triple feet, occurs elsewhere only in 
$4C But se* note under Ps. 5. 


Psalm 22 (also 19). c. m. d. 

jjjjjj rr 11 m 

> ,1 r r r J J i ^m 








J J r r JJ J 

Jehovah's law, it perfect is, 

The sowl agayn turning; 
Jehovah's witness faithful is, 

The simple wise making; 
Jehovah's charges righteous are, 

Giving hart's glad delight; 
Jehovah's precept, it is pure, 

Giving the eyes clear light. 

[Ps. 19 1 

In S&H., English, the 'proper' tune for the versified Te Deum. As it is 
there given without sharps, it seems to alternate between D minor and F 
major. It is there divided more definitely into lines than here. 

The rhythm off, as here given, is unique, though much like that of la and 

1*' . . 

Line b perhaps modulates into the dominant minor. 
The strong cadences of d and h are parallelled in 27a and 75*. 


Psalm 24 (also 29, 118). c. m. d. 

b I J * v p ? f r r ? rfi 9 f'^ 






' P a 

m d ■» 





* g) IK 

Lift up, ye gates, your heads, and ye, 

Dores of eternal aye, 
Be lifted up, that so the King 

Of glory enter may! 
This King of glory, who is He? 

Jehovah, puissant 
And valiant, Jehovah, He 

In battel valiant. 


In S&H., both forms, the 'proper' tune for Ps. 77. In the English version 
also set for Pss. 81 and 13;. Its origin is probably English. 

The steady triple feet in the 8-syllable lines are parallelled only in Ps.3i. 
The peculiar 'snap' rhythm of the 6-syllable lines is found only in 541/. 

The only certain modulation is that of rf into the dominant major, though 
passing into the relative minor is feasible in b and f. 

The subtle echoes between parallel lines in the couplets and quatrains are 


Psalm 25 (also 9, 37, 62, 71, 123). 10s. 

j-p -i J -I Y rffM' r^ J 




rv ,P , =g 




Upon Jehovah turn thy way aright, 
And trust on Him, and He wil see it doon; 

And wil bring forth thy justice as the light, 
And thy judgment as the bright shining noon. 


Set in Genevan Psalters (from at least 1542) to Ps. 8, but in the meter 
1 1-1 i-io-io (penultimate note in a and b divided.) 

The rhythm of a occurs only in \%b and 55A, while that of d is unique. 

Line b doubtless modulates into the relative major. The use of the flat in c , 
but not in a, suggests that a is conceived as ending in the dominant minor. 


Psalms 27 and 106 (also 30, 36, 101, 109, 115). c. m. d. 

« , . , j j 



1 1 j § J 1 . 1 



^ J Jj rrf rPp^a 



r r r " r 

* d S — o- 

Jehovah, in the heavens is 

Thy bountiful mercie; 
Thy constant faithfulness dooth reach 

Unto the hyest skye. 
Thy justice, as the mounts of God; 

Thy judgments, a great deep; 
Jehovah, Thou doost man and beast 

In helthful safety keep. 

[Ps. 36] 

In S&H., both forms, the 'proper' tune for Ps. 18. It is supposed to be of 
English origin. 

Lines a-b, here treated as a couplet, are divided in the music for Ps. 106. 
The only modulation is in e, into the dominant minor. 
On the cadence in a, see Ps. 22. 


Psalm 32 (also 28, 40, 70, 75, 102, 137). l. m. d. 



■i J JJJ 


J J J ft) J rJ , jj =g 








Jehovah's song how sing shal wee 

Within a forreyn people's land? 
Jerusalem, if I doo thee 

Forget, forget let my right hand, 
Cleav let my tongue to my palat, 

If I doo not in mind thee bear, 
If I Jerusalem doo not 

Above my chiefest joy prefer. 

IPs. 137] 

In S&H., English, set-to 'The Lamentation of a Sinner', one of the few 
appended hymns. Its origin is doubtless English. 

The triple movement recalls that of Ps. 0.4. 

Line e probably modulates into the relative major, as * and/ certainly do 
into the dominant minor. 

With suitable harmony, as supplied, for example, in Este's Psalter of 1 $92, 
this apparently monotonous lament takes on a singularly haunting beauty. 


Psalms 33, 81 and 104 (also 47, 114, 148). l. m. 

J j r r ,J J,] 'j J J,] r rri 




» o 

He brings forth bread out of the ground, 
And joyes the hart of man with wine; 
Makes face with oil chearful to shine, 

With bread man's heart upholdeth sound. 

[Ps. 104] 

The only melody in what appears to be the. jEolian mode. If conceived in 
A minor, b modulates into the relative major. 
The rhythms of a and c are unique. 


Psalm 34 (also 8s, 133, 149). l. m., 6 lines. 





f-g- i 'rrrrrr f F^ 


A J ,1 'J ^ J ,1 J .1 j =3 




Who is the man that life dooth will, 

That loveth dayes, good for to see? 
Refreyning keep thy tongue from yll, 
Thy lips from speaking fallacee. 
Doo good and evil quite eschew, 
Seek peace and after it pursew. 


In S&H., both forms, the 'proper' tune for the versified Lord's Prayer, and 
in the Scottish version also set for Ps. 112. It is the famous German melody 
'Vater unser', dating from at least as early as 1537- It came into English use 
from Geneva by 1560, if not earlier. 

The peculiar effect of the five long notes at the ends of lines is unique. 

Line / is tonally the same as ig. 


Psalms 35 and 77 (also 17, 31, 85, 92, 129, 142). 10s, 5 lines. 

? ? .(*) 



r rr JJ ^ 








> r rr-i J -uj-i- a 

Say to my sowl, I thy salvation am. 
Let my sowl-seekers basht and shamed bej 
Turnd back and blush, that evil think for me. 
As chaff before the wind, so be those same, 
And th'Angel of Jehovah driving them. 

IPs. 35] 

The rhythm of a, c and d is found elsewhere only in 37a and 45a. 
Lines c and d appear to modulate into the dominant minor and the relative 
major respectively. 


Psalm 37 (also 52, 61, 78, 97). 10s. 

j j jjJrrrr'r J rr. JJ r 







Frett not thyself for them that evil doon; 

Envie not them that doo injurious nes; 
For as the grass cut down they shal be soon, 

And fade ev'n as the budding herb's greennes. [ Ps. 37 ] 

Probably major, with modulations in a and c into the subdominant ana 
dominant majors. 

The rhythm of a occurs also in 3$acd and 45a. That of b is found only in 

S3 a 'f- 

The duplication of cadences in b and d is noticeable. 


Psalm 39 (also 41, 141). c. m. d. 





m — 


V , 











g= " P m P m 

r r r r r r 



1 ^ r « 






Fyre in my meditation burnd; 

I with my tongue did speak. 
Jehovah, make me know mine end, 

What my dayes' mesure eke; 
Know let me how short liv'd I am. 

Loe, Thou hast giv'n my dayes 
As handbredths, and my worldly time 

Fore Thee as nothing weighes. 


This cheerful and simple melody has no special originality to the modern 
ear, but may have been unusual in its day. The apparent avoidance of modula- 
tions tends toward monotony, but is offset by the lilting rhythms. Line/ 
is somewhat striking. 

Cadences in falling thirds, as in a and f, are unusual in this series, especially 
in major. 

Psalm 42 (also 43). c. m. d. 


J J " » J J « ± ^^ = f L 









J J J J J J ,) J g 

J O 


Like as the hinde for water-streams 

Dooth bray desirouslie, 
Ev'n so desirouslie dooth bray 

My sowl, O God, to Thee. 
For God, ev'n for the living God, 

My sowl it thirsteth sore; 
when shal I come and appear 

The face of God before? 


In S&H., both forms, the 'proper' tune for Ps. 69, but c-d are not united 
in a couplet. In the Scottish version no f-sharp is marked in c. Its origin is 
supposed to be English. , 

Line e modulates into the relative major. Line c is open to more than one 

The two pairs of identical cadences are noticeable. 


Psalm 44 (also 46, 48). c. m. d. 


v m 


r r r J j j r r ^^ 




c J J r r r r r f^e 

The nations did make a noyse, 

The kingdoms moved were; 
Give forth did He His thondring voice, 

The earth did melt with fear. 
The God of armies is with us, 

The everbeing J ah; 
The God of Jakob is for us, 

A refuge hye-. Selah. 

[ Ps. 4 & i 

In S&H., both forms, the 'proper' tune for Ps. 44. It comes from the 
Genevan Psalter of 1556. 

It is somewhat peculiar for the repetition of figures and cadences, and the 
avoidance of modulation. Its rhythms, too, are uniform. 


Psalm 45 (also 53, 58, 72, 95, 96, 103, in, 147). 10s, 6 lines. 




JJ r rjJjJ J l'jrrrJ^ 



fcr^-prrr'Jp p-p 



n r r r ■*.. 



Come, let us to the Lord showt joyfully, 
To Rock of our health showt triumphantly. 
Let us prevent His face with thanksgiving, 
Let us with psalms to Him triumphant sing. 
Because the Lord is a great God mightie, 
A great King eke, above al gods is Hee. 

IPs. 95l 

The combination of rhythms is remarkable. That of a is found in 3$acd 
and yja, but the others are unique. Line/ has 1 1 notes, requiring a slur (not 
elsewhere in this series except in 1 1 if ). 

Line e modulates into the dominant minor. In the other lines the key may 
play back and forth somewhat. 


Psalm 50 (also 12, 73, 126). 10s & us. 

rrr 1 rrrr JjlJ rrrrrrrrr 

^ r r r r J r r r r J ' C r r r ■' r.rrr 

r r Jj!iJJ r rr.i l Jrr'' r ^rr J - ' 

For ech beast of the wood to Me perteyns, 

The beasts that on a thousand mountayns bee. 
I know al flying fowls of the mountayns, 
And store of wild beasts of the field with Mee. 
If I were hungry, thee I would not tell it, 
For myne the world and plenty that dooth fyll it. 

[ Ps. so] 

In S&H., both forms, the 'proper' tune for Ps. 50. _ It came into English 
use from the Genevan Psalter of 1559, along with Whittingham's version of 
that Psalm. The sharp in e is not in the Scottish version. 

The only melody in the series (except the redundant 45/) with 'feminine' 
endings, as in e and/. 

Line b, and possibly e as well, modulates into the dominant minor. 

The duplication of c and d is somewhat singular. Was this originally a 
5-line tune? 


Psalm 51. l. m. d. 


1> ■' J J r r r r 


f ' ' o ^ 

,u j j j r r r ,i r r J r r J J 


j j J J j"i ■' r.r 


f 3 ^ 

>-r rr J J J -iJ ■' • |J jjjj„ ^ 

O God, be gracious to me 

According unto Thy kindnes; 
As Thy compassions many bee, 

Wipe Thou away my trespasses. 
Much wash me from my perversenes, 

And from my syn me purine. 

My trespasses for know doo I, 
And my syn 'fore me alway is. 

[ Ps. 51 ] 

In S&H., both forms, the 'proper* tune for Ps. 51. It came from the 
Genevan Paslter of 1 556. 

Line d apparently modulates into the relative major. The sharp in e is 
not used in the Scottish version, perhaps implying the same key. 

The duplication in lines b and g, and the likeness of six of the cadences, 
catch attention. 


Psalm 53 (also 56, 64). 10s, 6 lines 


rr J rr J J 



a a 

a a 


hU J I JJ 



j* 1 







God, hear my voice when I doo pray to Thee; 

Preserve my life from dread of th'enemie. 
From secret of yll-doers hide Thou mee, 
From rage of them that work iniquitie, 

Which have their tongue sharp-whetted as a sword, 

Have bent their arrow, ev'n a bitter word. [ Ps. 64 ] 

The peculiar rhythm of a, e and/ is found only in 37*. 
. Lines a and d modulate into the dominant minor and e into the relative 


The successive skips at the opening of b are unusual. 


Psalm 54. c. m. 







O God, Thou in Thy name me save, 
And in Thy pow'r judge me. 

O God, my prayer hear; to words 
Of my mouth heedful be. 


See notes under Ps. 21. 


Psalm 55 (also 62, 71, 80, 94). 10s, d. 


. u ri 9— 9 m . . 



~~o — o u ' 



" el '' 

61 — TT 







Mine hart is payned in the mids of me; 
Terrours of death eke falln upon me be. 

Fear is into me come and trembling dread, 

And quaking horrour hath me covered. 
So that I say, Who wil give me a wing, 
As dove, that I might flye and find dwelling? 

Loe, wandring flight I would make farr away; 

Lodge would I in the wildernes. Selah. 

t Ps. 55 i 

The traditional melody in early French Psalters for Ps. 103. It occurs as 
far back as the Strassburg Psalter of 1539. 

The rhythm of a, d and e occurs only in 119a, that of* only in 18* and i5«, 
and that of g is unique. 

Apparently, line b modulates into the subdominant major, and e and perhaps 
£into the dominant minor. 

The bold motion at two or three points is notable. 


Psalm 59 (also 79). c. m. d. 








• o 

But I will sing Thy strength and show 

At morning Thy kindnes; 
For Thou my fense and refuge art 

In day of my distress. 
Thou that art my fortitude, 

To Thee sing psalm wil I; 
For God mine hye munition is, 

The God of my mercie. 

[Ps. 59 1 

Found in both forms of S&H., in the English set to 'The Humble Suite of 
a Sinner' (one of the added hymns), and in the Scottish the 'proper' tune for 
Ps. 35 (but with the last three lines quite different). 

Probably is to be thought without modulation. 


Psalm 60 (also 57, 65, 67, 113, 145). l. p. m. 


-pf f gp» p b pa= 

p~ y 




rrrrr jj J ^rrrrrH r r i 

O blessed he whom Thou dbost make 
Choise of, and neer unto Thee take 

In Thy courts to have dwelling-place. 
With good things that in Thine howse bee 
Ful satisfied be shal wee, 

With holy things of Thy pallace. 


All but line b closely corresponds to a melody set for Ps. 24 in the Genevan 
Psalter of 1542. 

The 'snap' rhythms in a and d are unique. 

Line b modulates into the dominant minor. 

It is to be noted that the verse is in triolets, as in Ps. 84. 


Psalm 66 (also 26). l. m. 


U J J J J 


M_ Jt 

» * <J" 

J.J J J J J J 



O al the earth, showt yee to God; 

His name's glory with psalm sing yee. 
Put glorie to His praise, and say 

To God, How fearful Thy works bee! 

The rhythm of i, c and d does not occur elsewhere. 
Line c modulates into the relative major. 



Psalm 75 (also 70, 105, 132, 138). l. m. d. 

J J j j j j J j p r r J 





« « 





« a 





With al my hart He Thee confess 

Before the gods to Thee sing psalme; 
To pallace of Thy holynes 

He bow down and confess Thy name 
For Thy mercie and veritee. 

For Thow Thy word hast magnified 
'Bove al Thy name. Thou answ'redst mee 

Then in the day wherin I cried. 


In S&H., Scottish, the 'proper' tune for Ps. 91, being derived from French 
Psalters of 1559 and 1561. 

The rhythm of b and d is unique and peculiar. 

These lines modulate into the dominant minor, and/ into the relative major. 


Psalm 78 (also 49, 80, 91, 94). 10s, d. 


JjJJjjjjj'jjjj'm ii 

-a — zt 






/-i « * 



rrrrr JJ 

» # * j -o 


Thou shalt not fear for terrour of the night, 
Nor for the arrow that by day makes flight; 
For pest that in the darknes maketh way, 
For stinging plague that wasteth at noon-day. 
Falln at thy side though thowsand thowsands bee 
At thy right hand, it shal not come neer thee. 
Onely thou with thine eyes shalt give regard, 
And thou shalt see the wicked men's reward. 

[ Ps. 91 1 

I have not identified this melody elsewhere. It is almost certainly French. 
The rhythms are uniform throughout, exactly like those of Ps. in. 
Line a modulates into the dominant minor. The problem of how far to 
introduce sharps recalls that in Ps. 18. The cadence off is like that of i8r. 


Psalm 84 and 136 (also 20, 67, 1 13). l. p. m. d. or 8s & 7s, d. 

;i j jjJjJpr'r r J ^ J rr'f rf^ r 

, u jjj jj rr ' rr jjjj rr ' rrr j 


frrrrrrrrr'rrrrrrrr'jrrr j ^ 

fr j j rrr jjj'|^ 



Confess Jehovah thankfully, 
For He is good, for His mercy 

Continueth for ever. 
To God of gods confess doo yee, 
Because His bountiful-mercee 

Continueth for ever. 
Unto the Lord of lords confess, 
Because His merciful kindnes 

Continueth for ever. 
To Him that dooth Himself onely 
Things wondrous great, for His mercy 

Continueth for ever. 


This famous battle-song, which Douen calls "the Huguenot Marseillaise , 
is traceable in French Psalters as far back as 1 J39, set first to Ps. 36, later to 
Ps. 68. Phrases from it may be found in early German chorales. In S&H., 
both forms, it is the 'proper' tune for Ps. 113. See Douen, i. 657-8 

Its uniform rhythm is most telling in the form applied in Ps. 136. 

This is the only Pilgrim melody, besides "Old 100th' and 'Toulon , that I 
have noted in modern hymnals. In Hatfield's Church Hymn Book (1874) six 
of its lines are lamely given under the name 'Calvin'. 


Psalm 89 (also 87, 99). c. m. d. 


r r r r r r ,r T 










■j— r 


r j J J j J r r J r r ^ 

blessed are the folk that know 

The trompet's sounding shrille; 
Jehovah, in Thy face's light 

They shal walk forward stil. 
In Thy renoumed name they shal 

Be gladsom al the day; 
And in Thy justice righteous 

Exalted be shal they. 

[Ps.8 9 I 

In S&H., both forms, set to the versified Magnificat. Its origin is supposed 
to be English. _ 

It is unique in its apparent harmonic structure. The first halt seems to 
be in F major, but the second half in G minor. 

The rhythms ofc and * are unusual, as are the skips in e. 


Psalm 97 (also 95, 146, 150). 10s. 





» j g 




» » P f ^» 

rrF. ^.rr ^^ 

O praise Him with sound of the trompet shril; 

Praise Him with harp and the psalterion; 
O praise Him with the flute and tymberel; 

Praise Him with virginals and organon! 

[ Ps. 150 

This major melody has interesting points of general likeness, especially 
in movement, to the minor melody of Ps. 3. 

Lines 6 and c modulate into the dominant major. 


Psalm ioo (also 105). l. m. 

Y j j j j j j J J ' J J J j j J J =g 






Showt to Jehovah, al the earth; 

Serv ye Jehovah with gladnes; 
Before Him come with singing mirth; 

Know that Jehovah He God is. 

[Ps. 100] 

In S&H., both forms, the 'proper' tune for Ps. ioo. On its history, see 
article in Grove, Dictionary of Music, iii. 431-2. 

The rhythms are to be noted in their difference from those later adopted 
and now universally employed. 

The melody asserts its plagal range at once, which is unusual. 


Psalm 108 (also 117, 122, 125, 128, 135). 6s & 4. 




" * * 

c d 

? L 





Jehovah, I wil Thee 

Confess the folks among, 
And in the nations 

I wil Thee praise with song. 

That Thy mercies 
Are great above heav'ns and 
Thy truth unto the skies. 

[Ps. 108] 

In S&H., Scottish, the 'proper' tune for Ps. 136, but there given without 
the flat in the signature. The insertion of this in Ainsworth seems to be an 

As this is the only specimen of this odd meter, most of the rhythms are 
unique. Cf. note to Ps. 13. . . ... 

Line b seems to modulate into the subdominant major, as d certainly does. 

The opening is singularly bold and the reiteration of the four-note phrase 
in c and e is interesting. 


Psalm hi (also 112, 140, 147). 10s, 6 lines. 



m r m 

m t» 






rcrr rrr J ^ JJJ 


t |'rJrr^ JJJ 'r' , ''^rJ JJ ^ 

O blessed man that dooth Jehovah fear, 

That greatly dooth in His commands delight. 

His seed in earth shal mighty persevere; 
Blessed shal be the race of the upright. 

In his house riches are and welthy store; 

His justice standeth eke for evermore. 

[Ps. 112] 

The unusual number of repeated notes suggests that perhaps this melody 
has been made out of one intended for lines with fewer syllables. The cadence 
in c is altogether unique. .... 

Lines b and c probably both modulate into the dominant minor. 


Psalm 119 (also 37, 49, 139). 10s, d. 

J-' ri'rr J rrr ^ 




f » 6 '< 


g w ' w m m P a m f ( J 

r r r r ' * 

g ■• h 


' h 

Behind and 'fore Thou doost me strayt inclose; 
Upon me also doost Thy hand impose. 

This knowledge is too marvellous for me; 

It's high, to reach I shal not able be. 
O whither shal I from Thy spirit goe? 
And whither shal I flee Thy presence fro? 

If I clime up the heav'ns, Thou art there; 

Or make my bed in hel, loe, Thou art there. 

[Ps. 139] 

This fine long melody presents considerable general likeness to that for 
Ps. 84. In the Genevan Psalters from 1549 it became the regular tune for 
Ps. 32. 

The rhythm of a occurs only in ssade.' 

Lines e and g probably modulate into the dominant major. 


IT seems clear that behind the majority of these melodies 
stood a harmonic feeling substantially like that of to-day. 
This appears not only from the general form of the melodies 
themselves, but from comparison with the harmonies supplied 
for the same or similar melodies in sundry harmonized versions 
dating from before and after 1612. It is enough to refer to the 
settings of Daye and Este in England, issued in 1563 and 1592 
respectively, and to those of the Scottish version of 1635. While 
certain of the details in all these are not exactly what we should 
now instinctively use, and there are others now common that 
are not yet attempted, there is no radical difference of procedure. 
Whatever may have been the crudity or timidity of practice in 
other forms of music at the opening of the 16th century, the 
treatment of folk-song airs was already well settled upon the 
lines that have been recognized ever since. 

This general fact gives ample warrant for the application 
of harmony to these melodies, both to bring out some of their 
latent musical life, and to make them serviceable for choral or 
instrumental reproduction. Exactly how this is to be done, 
however, may be debated. It is likely that every musician, 
as he looks over the material here presented, will have his own 
notion of how he would prefer to handle it. It is obvious that 
almost every phrase is open to more than one treatment. And 
just how far it is wise to go in the employment of various devices 
of chord-succession and voice-part leading that are now frequent 
is a matter requiring both taste and judgment. 

In many cases, also, the exact reading of the melodies is 
in doubt. Except where other books supply the accepted usage, 
Ainsworth leaves us without sure indication of the use of sharps. 
This lack is constant in the formation of cadences and sometimes 
in the harmonic sense of entire lines. One melody, at least, 
that for Psalm 37, can be regarded throughout in either of two 
keys. And those melodies that are apparently cast upon the 
framework of the old church modes require special considera- 
tion. Several of them are almost impossible to conceive in quite 
our modern idiom. As a specimen, Psalm 33 is given without 
any deviation from the mode. 


It has seemed wise to include in the present study some 
harmonized versions of representative melodies, choosing those 
that are on the whole most obvious or most otherwise service- 
able. The treatment offered aims to preserve a fair degree of the 
original effect and at the same time keep in with our more modern 
feeling. Instead of using the same formula for similar figures 
in the melodies, somewhat varied handling has been introduced. 

It is clear that the customary modulations are those indicated 
in the preceding notes — especially in minor into the relative 
major or the dominant minor — but there are cases where the 
exact process presents some difficulty. Whether or not in these 
and other particulars what is offered is a wise solution, the 
general experiment of giving a part of the songs in harmony 
is worth making. 

I make no attempt to divide the phrases into measures. Some 
of them, no doubt, can be easily arranged thus. But others 
present difficulties, especially in the mingling of duple with triple 
note-groups and in the surprising frequency of a syncopated 
accent that amounts to an emphatic 'snap', sometimes kept 
up for more than one note. My impression is that the true render- 
ing requires attention to the flow of each phrase as a whole with 
respect to the accent of the verse, and that a certain elasticity 
or freedom of rhythm is to be sought. It is very doubtful whether 
any rigid 'keeping of time' should be made conspicuous. Rather 
the essential character of each phrase and group of phrases should 
be studied and brought out by intuitive sympathy. It is probable 
that in the early singing the pace was fairly quick and the accents 

Simply as a means of making reproduction easier, some 
melodies have been transposed. 

A stanza of Words is given as in the preceding pages. 


Psalm i . cm. d. 

^r^^ ' ^ fpffp 

■ u',1, 1 ,'i/Z^ \ U \li? i 

g r r r r r r r r r rrrT 



WMW l ^'r'^ 

O blessed man, that dooth not in 

The wicked's counsel walk 
Nor stand in synner's way, nor sit 

In seat of scornful folk, 
But setteth in Jehovah's law 

His pleasureful delight, 
And in His law dooth meditate 

By day and eke by night. 



Psalms 3. 10s. 

w ? til* wfH$ t x \?wwv f rrr ^ 

fJrWrfn'f f 'iprrK rfr'r } 

*\wtt\\U \ ))\H \\l*i 

rr ' ■ rr 


f M f Wfr f V ' Ar r F rrr 'fff 
1 rrrr rrr'T ' r rr'T'rrr r 


I layd me down and slept; I waking rose; 

For me Jehovah firmly up did bear. 

For thowsands ten of folk I wil not fear, 
Which me besetting round about inclose. 


Psalm 97 10s. 

f.^.Wl.VV^^V.' 11 . 1 

MittirfAU^ m 


P J J J J J JJJ ^ J I I J J J J" J J I J r 

O praise Him with sound of the trompet shril; 

Praise Him with harp and the psalterion; 
O praise Him with the flute and tymberel; 

Praise Him with virginals and organon! 


[Ps. 150] 

Psalm 24. c. m. d. 

fa it ii j^L Jj \i i j j^ ^N 



_j ^j jj^jj .iiijii 


J J J ' 

rr rf r * 

r fr r r 

1 ' r r.r r *> ' 

Lift up, ye gates, your heads, and ye, 

Dores of eternal aye, 
Be lifted up, that so the King 

Of glory enter may! 
This King of glory, who is He? 

Jehovah, puissant 
And valiant, Jehovah, He 

In battel valiant. 

[Ps.a 4 l 


Psalm 5. L. m. 

VftiUi.lhHI l^m 

r -r 1 f — r~] — n < — i i I r F Hi 9 - P 



rr i i r 1 r " f rnf 


ff r rrPr FT? 1 ffr Ft r~ 

[ ' r ff r r rr f 1p ff rrrr r - ' 


And all that hope in Thee for stay 
Shal joy, shal showt eternallie; 

And Thou shalt cover them; and they 
That love Thy name, be glad in Thee. 


Psalm 15. c. m. 

^iJ' j j J J J J J . 1 1 J j J J J J 1 

rl J J I ^^ J J 

•v i' r 1 I r t 1 1 1 






' ' <m ^ 

Jehovah, who shal sojourner 
In Thy pavilion bee? 

Who shal a dweller be within 
Thy mount of sanctitie? 


[Pa. IS] 

Psalm 32. l. h. d. 

yy/il/V^Wffl ppffp 

>^ l 'f' | M^ | l | ^ ^ ^ 

j J 4 J J- J 



7 'r rr rrn ir 


r r r r r 

p tWltWVlJff^ 

l ,i Ji -i J . J j. J ^ v j j t ^ j * 

'"" rF'rr'r 'n /, ■ r f ' r 



Jehovah's song how sing shal wee 

Within a forreyn people's landf 
Jerusalem, if I doo thee 

Forget, forget let my right hand. 
Cleav let my tongue to my palat, 

If I doo not in mind thee bear, 
If I Jerusalem doo not 

Above my chiefest joy prefer. 

IPs. X37l 


Psalm 21. s. m. 

|J J I J J J J I I ' I f I 

Jehovah, in Thy strength 
Doo high Thyself advance; 

And we wil sing and praise with psalm 
Thy powrful puissance. 

IPs. 21 1 

Psalm 33. l. m. 

i .1 j J J j.l j .1' l j J'Jj ') j j ') 

v r f xrf (' r c 'c rr m ' f p 


rr^ r i' 'r rrr P rr 


He brings forth bread out of the ground, 
And joyes the hart of man with wine; 
Makes face with oil chearful to shine, 

With bread man's heart upholdeth sound. 

[Pi. 104 1 


Psalm 39. c. m. d. 


j j i'l \±' ] ttt^ 

r r r r t r r rfr 

v v> r r r r. r r r !rr rrr 1 ? 

M ^ J j 

r r r r 


|' | I I I j- f» J, J * « 


'** 1 r f r r 

Fyre in my meditation burnd; 

I with my tongue did speak. 
Jehovah, make me know mine end, 

What my dayes* mesure eke; 
Know let me how short liv'd I am. 

Loe, Thou hast giv'n my dayes 
As handbredths, and my worldly time 

Fore Thee as nothing weighes. 



Psalm aj. 10s. 

^r7u ' r/' i ' i J i i -Vr/ ^ 

&i4^H{(^f ^m 

mU^m#M4 1 

Upon Jehovah turn thy way aright, 

And trust on Him, and He wil see it doon; 

And wil bring forth thy justice as the light, 

And thy judgment as the bright shining noon. [ Ps. 37 ] 

Psalm 37. 10s. 

' I 1 l 111 "" 1.) .1.1 JJJJ.U lB 



Pfrrrrrr 'rn^rrrrrrp : 



\ x M)ttm xx MW\~ x 

j"i ; rrf'fr fr r Mr rrrrfffTt 

Frett not thyself for them that evil doon; 

Envie not them that doo injuriousnes; 
For as the grass cut down they shal be soon, 

And fade ev'n as the budding herb's greennes. 



Psalm 44. c. m. d. 


J J J J J j J i ^ 

r f r r p r r f^ 




J J J J J I J Jji 




r r ! ii' rri 1 


The nations did make a noyse, 

The kingdoms moved were; 
Give forth did He His thondring voice, 

The earth did melt with fear. 
The God of armies is with us, 

The everbeing J ah; 
The God of Jakob is for us, 

A refuge hye. Selah. 

[Ps. 4 61 


Psalm 108. 6s, 4. 

r 3SDjSffi^j- 

r r r c c 

Jehovah, I wil Thee 

Confess the folks among, 
And in the nations 

I wil Thee praise with song. 

That Thy mercies 
Are great above heav'ns and 
Thy truth unto the skies. 

[Ps. 108] 


Psalm 84. l. p. m. d. 

Confess Jehovah thankfully, 
For He is good, for His mercy 

Continueth for ever. 
To God of gods confess doo yee, 
Because His bountiful-mercee 

Continueth for ever. 
Unto the Lord of lords confess, 
Because His merciful kindnes 

Continueth for ever. 
To Him that dooth Himself onely 
Things wondrous great, for His mercy 

Continueth for ever. 

IPs. 1.36] 


Psalm 119. 10s, d. 

r rrr f f ? rir f frrr 

v> p' ■ 1 r f rpi p 1 f v r r r r m^r 

r 1 i' i prr r r rrr r r 

ft r rrr r rfTTr 'r rrrf^ ^ 





ri ri' fifi 

Behind and 'fore Thou doost me strayt inclose; 
Upon me also doost Thy hand impose. 

This knowledge is too marvellous for me; 

It's high, to reach I shal not able be. 
O whither shal I from Thy spirit goe? 
And whither shal I flee Thy presence fro? 

If I clime up the heav'ns, Thou art there; 

Or make my bed in hel, loe, Thou art there. 

I Pa. 139 1